The Anti-Vaccine Movement: A Brief History

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A few days ago, we wrote about the U.S. whooping cough outbreak -- which is the worst in 50 years.

Pertussis can prove deadly to infants and toddlers, but healthy adults aren't likely to succumb to this illness. (However, it's still a good idea to get a booster shot! Details here.)

Whooping cough cases have outright ballooned in Washington; state health authorities actually declared epidemic status earlier this year, there has been a 13-fold increase in diagnoses since 2011.

Washington -- though home to a lot of highly-educated, tech savvy people -- is also the epicenter of the U.S. anti-vaccination movement. Over the last few decades, more and more parents there have opted out of inoculating their kids against preventable illnesses. As some 90 percent of any population must be inoculated for vaccines to work -- AKA "herd immunity" -- many are blaming Washington's anti-vax camp for spurring the disease's spread.

Of course, this brings up some questions: What the hell is the anti-vax movement, anyway? Where does it come from and, perhaps most importantly, why don't people want to protect their kids?

To answer your queries, we've prepped a brief history...

Turns out, the anti-vaccine movement has been around for a very long time in America -- even before the U.S. was a country.

Back in 1721, Boston was suffering from a nasty smallpox outbreak. Then, despite many Boston residents' religious objections, Rev. Cotton Mather convinced a doctor named Zabdiel Boylston to inoculate the city against the disease with a process known as variolation -- think of variolation as giving a patient a very weak form of a disease, in a controlled manner, to boost his or her immunity, and you've got the right idea.

Boylston first tried the method on his 6-year-old son, slave, and slave's son and it worked, prompting him to immunize the city.

In 1722, however, immunization began generating backlash -- meaning anti-vax roots started deepening even before Dr. Edward Jenner, the father of modern immunization, famously experimented with the smallpox vaccine in 1796.

What happened?

Well, Rev. Edmund Massey, an English theologian, published a paper called "The Dangerous and Sinful Practice of Inoculation" which basically argued that diseases were sent by god to punish evildoers.

At that time, nobody took Massey to heart too much.

Anti-vax activism started later, with Jenner's success.

With the promotion of public vaccination campaigns started to come lots of pushback.

Enter William Tebb.

Vaccines were quite popular in the U.S. and required by many municipalities, in fact, until the British anti-vax activist visited the States in 1879, starting the Anti-Vaccination Society of America.

Two more groups, the New England Anti Compulsory Vaccination League and the Anti-vaccination League of New York City, cropped up in 1882 and 1885, respectively.

These groups successfully caused courts to repeal vaccination laws in California, Illinois, Wisconsin, and other states.

An 1902 outbreak in Cambridge, Mass., however, prompted city officials to order mandatory vaccinations.

One resident, Henning Jacobson, refused and took his claim to court. The case made its way to the U.S. Supreme Court, which ultimately ruled against him in 1905.

This landmark case was the first time the SCOTUS established the legal relationship between the government and public health law.

Fast forward to the 1970s.

Vaccines drew criticism in the West once again, when some claimed that the common diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis injection caused neurological disorders in 36 London children, prompting parents not to immunize their kids.

A similar scenario played out in England in the late 1990s.

Then, a physician alleged that the measles, mumps, rubella vaccine could cause bowel disease and autism.

Evidence later emerged suggesting that the doctor conducting the study had falsified data and had extensive conflicts of interest, which he did not report.

Both the DTP and MMR controversies have been generally discredited by the medical community, though both caused public health scares and persistent mistrust of immunizations.

Today in the U.S., one of the most prominent anti-vax backers is none other than Dr. Bob Sears, a leader of the attachment parenting movement.

And there you have it -- some answers about the world of anti-vax advocates.

(Info from Pediatrics, AOL News, Discover Magazine, Warfare of Science With Theology, Forbes, Historyofvaccines.org and many thanks to Wikipedia 's beautiful bibliographies for putting us on the right path source-wise.)

Follow Victoria Bekiempis @vicbekiempis.


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10 comments
darkmoonman
darkmoonman

The 21st century, and people in the USA are still opposing health and science, and putting everyone t risk, because of boogeymen.  

QuestionEverything
QuestionEverything

OK people. Here is the very latest study. These are respected researchers/doctors. I suggest that Victoria and Lawrencium read this. It will explain my stance on the illogical piece of BS hoax that is this article. BTW lawrencium you have no idea what my qualifications are. Never make assumptions like you did. You could not be more wrong about me. http://www.ecomed.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/3-tomljenovic.pdf

Lawrencium
Lawrencium

Dr. Bob Sears had a hand in starting the 2008 San Diego measles outbreak. The index patient was a young boy who traveled to Switzerland with his family, and brought back the virus. The boy was unvaccinated - and one of Bob Sears's patients.

mdgmdgmdg
mdgmdgmdg

The author actually relied on Wikipedia(!!!) for source material?! Even High School students are warned to stay away from Wikipedia as a source because of inaccuracies. Any subject that is controversial on Wikipedia tends to be taken over by one group or another making for an exceptionally biased piece of writing and bias list of references. Wikipedia is the worst source for almost anything scientific and controversial! The rest of the sources are nearly as useless.

It is so simple to write a balanced and somewhat authoritative article. All one has to do is go to a couple of scientists on each side of the issue (persons with proven knowledge of the scientific literature). Then conduct some phone or online interviews. In this case, the article included a skewed history of the anti-vaccination movement, so the writer could go to a couple of organizations on either side of the issue for source material.

As biased as the author is, I would hope for at least a professional job that would not insult the growing numbers of people who see many vaccinations as useless and dangerous.

QuestionEverything
QuestionEverything

Now I'm really pissed. I just noticed this piece is filed under 'HOAXES'. How degrading to anyone willing to question Vaccine science, or anything actually. How is it a hoax to make informed decisions? And not believe all the crap fed to us by newspapers that cherry pick the research. Ugh. I would like to know why Victoria Bekiempis took such pleasure in this kind of hysteria piece. And why this piece? Is she qualified to do scientific journalism? What ever happened to W5 in regards to showing unbiased writing. F- for this bogus piece Victoria.

QuestionEverything
QuestionEverything

This is a fluff piece that is in no was well researched. Dangerous misinformation.The truth is recent vaccines are bogus. The MMR Merck vaccine fraud exposed by two Merck virologists; company faked mumps vaccine efficacy results for over a decade, says lawsuit. That was a few days ago. Funny you didn't mention that. And what about the diabolical Gardisil? Huge issues with that one. I'm no journalist but it takes 5 minutes of research to see that vaccines have changed drastically over the last 30 years in composition. And conflict of interest. I am deeply distressed that the Village Voice has chosen to do such an unbalanced and obviously pressured piece of hog wash PR. Take some time and do the reading required to make a real assessment of the experimental nature of today's vaccinations. It may surprise you-and definitely scare you. Learn more: http://www.naturalnews.com/036328_Merck_mumps_vaccine_False_Claims_Act.html#ixzz21lqSjObq

Lawrencium
Lawrencium

 @QuestionEverything For over 200 years, anti-vaccine hysteria has been characterized by hoaxes and baseless fears. Wakefield is just another in a long line of hucksters and cranks.

Lawrencium
Lawrencium

 @QuestionEverything It may take five minutes of Googling to find study abstracts, but it takes a decade of post-graduate study and research to begin to understand those studies. You admit that you are no journalist. You are also not a scientist, or much of a deep thinker for that matter.

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